Ministry of Science, Research and Technology
Allameh Mohaddes Nouri University
(Non-Governmental, Non-Profit)
Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences
English Department
The Role of CALL in Facilitating the Reading Ability of EFL Learners
Supervisor:
Dr. Karim Shabani
Advisor:
Dr. Amir Marzban
Student:
Samaneh Kordnaeij
THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN TEACHING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE
ALLAMEH MOHADDES NOURI UNIVERSITY
FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCES
ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
NOUR, IRAN
NOVEMBER, 2014
In the Name of God,
The All-Merciful, the All-Compassionate
WE HEREBY RECOMMEND THAT THIS THESIS
BY:
Samaneh Kordnaeij
ENTITLED:
The Role of CALL in Facilitating the Reading Ability of EFL Learners.
BE ACCEPTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN TEFL
COMMITTEE ON ORAL EXAMINATION
Dr. Karim Shabani
Dr. Amir Marzban
Dr. Reza Mobashernia
Head of the English Department Dr. Karim Shabani

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

First, I would like to thank my supervisor, Dr. Karim Shabani for his support, advice and encouragement throughout this study; I am really grateful for his willingness to help in reviewing the study to come out to light. His useful comments were truly a tremendous help at every stage.
I would like to thank my advisor Dr. Amir Marzban for the profitable discussions that contributed to my research work and for the suggestions he gave me during the preparation of this thesis.

ABSTRACT
The present study was carried out to determine the role of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) in facilitating the reading ability of EFL learners. It was hypothesized that CALL wouldn’t have significant impact on reading comprehension. The participants in this study were 60 students selected randomly from the EFL learners from an English language institute. The participants were the Iranian male and female intermediate EFL learners with the range of 18 to 22 years of age. They shared the same linguistic and cultural background and their first language in the research was Persian. The participants completed pre-intermediate level and passed the placement test at the intermediate level. Quantitative method and true experimental design was used to explore the effects of CALL on the participants’ reading ability compared to traditional method of teaching reading. The tools for collecting quantitative data in this study included a pre-test and a post-test. All the participants were randomly assigned to a control and an experimental group. The experimental group studied with a CALL program through doing some exercises. The control group went through a traditional method of teaching reading in a classroom. The results showed that using computer in the class had a positive impact on reading ability of EFL learners. The result of this study can be considered a contribution in the latest way of teaching reading to the speakers of the other language and also the results of current study may be beneficial to teachers of foreign languages (particularly Iranian teachers) in that they can benefit from innovative ways of teaching reading by CALL program and helping the learners to understand the reading text better.
Keywords:
Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL), Reading, EFL context.
Table of Contents
Title Page
Abstract6
List of Tables9
List of Abbreviations and Transcription Conventions10
Introduction11
0.1.Introduction12
0.2. Purpose of the Study…………………………………………………………..15
0.3. Significance of the Study………………………………………………………16
0.4. Statement of the paroblem…………………………………………………….17
0.5. Research Questions……………………………………………………………19
0.6. Research Null Hypothesis …………………………………………………….19
0.7. Definition of Key Terms ………………………………………….…………..19
0.8. Limitations and de-limitations….. …………………………………………….20
0.9.Outline of the Study……………………………………………………….……20

Chapter 1: Review of the Related Literature22
1.1. Introduction 23
1.2. Reading and Importance of Reading……………………………………………23
1.3. Reading Purposes….……………..………………………………………………27
1.4. Types of Reading………………………………………………………………28
1.4.1. Extensive reading………………………………………………………..28
1.4.2. Intensive reading………………………………………………………….28
1.5. Reading Comprehension……………………………………………………….29
1.6. Reading Comprehension Skills…………………………………………………31
1.6.1. Skimming…………………………………………………………………………………….31
1.6.2.Scanning………………………………………………………………….32
1.6.3. Identifying the Topic……………………………………………………..32
1.6.4. Prediction…………………………………………….…………………….33
1.6.5. Inferring…………………………………………………………………..33
1.6.6. Asking and Answering Questions………………………………………..33
1.6.7. Note-taking……………………………………………………………….34
1.6.8. Sequencing ………………………………………………………………34
1.6.9. Knowing the meaning of words through context …………………………..….34
1.6.10. Visualizing………………………………………………………………34
1.6.11. Summarizing Text………………………………………………………35
1.6.12. Knowing the meaning of words through context……………………….35
1.6.13. Distinguishing facts from opinion ………………………………………36
1. 7. Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) ………………………………36
1.8. The History of CALL……………………………………………………………36
1.8.1.Behavioristic CALL………………………………………………………37
1.8.2. Communicative CALL………………………………………..………….38
1.8.3. Interactive CALL………………..……………………………………….38
1.9. Advantages of CALL……………………………………………………………38
1.10. Disadvantages of CALL…………………………………………………..…40
1.11. CALL and Reading Skills……………………………………………………42
1.12. Using Computers in a Reading Class…………………………………………43
1.13. CALL Methodology……………………………………………………….…45
1.14. Previous Studies on CALL……………………………………………………46
1.15. Summary…………………………………………………..………….……….55
Chapter 2: Methodology56
2.1. Introduction57
2.2. Participant………………………………………………………………………57
2.3. Design……………………………………………………………………………57
2.4. Procedure……………………………………………………………………….59
2.5. Instrumentation…………………………………………………………………59
2.5.1. The Placement Test………………….,………………………………….59
2.5.2. Pre-test………………………………………………….………………..59
2.5.3. Post-test…………………………………………………………………..60
2.6. Data collection and analysis…………………………………………….………60
2.7. Summary …………………………………………………………………..…. 60
Chapter 3: Results62
3.1. Introduction63
3.2. Data analysis and Findings……………………………………………………..63
3.2.1. Analysis of Pre test………………………………………………………63
3.2.2. Analysis of Post test…………………………………………………….64
3.2.2.1 Reliability of the test…………………………………………….64
3.3 Summary………………………………………………….……………….…….67
Chapter 4: Discussion, Conclusion, Implications and Suggestions68
4.1. Introduction…………………………………………………………………….69
4.2. Discussion………………………………………………………….…………..69
4.3. Conclusions……………………………………………………………….……70
4.4. Implications…………………………………………………………………….70
4.4.1. Pedagogical Implications…………………………………………………70
4.4.2. Theoretical Implication…………………………………………………..71
4.5. limitations………………………………………………………………………71
4.6. Recommendations for Further Studies………………………………………….73
4.7. Summary………………………………………………………………………..73
APPENDICES74

REFERENCES………..………………………………………………………………102
List of Tables
3.1 Independent Sample t-test Analysis of Pre-test…………………………………..64
3.2 Reliability of the posttest by using Split half……………………………………..64
3.3 Paired Sample t-test Analysis of Pretest and Posttest…………………………….65
3.4 Independent Sample t-test Analysis of post-test…………………………………..65

List of Abbreviations and Transcription Conventions
SPSS = Statistical Package for Social Science
EFL = English as a Foreign Language
CALL = Computer-Assisted-Language-Learning
ICT =Information and Communication Technology
Introduction
0.1 Introduction
The spread of computers in educational contexts changed the realm of language teaching so dramatically that it seems necessary to language teachers to think about the implication of computers for language learning (Warschauer, 1996).
As Hardisty and Windeat (1989) state, Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) aims to describe the use of computers as part of a language course. During the last decade, Studies have illustrated how computer technologies support meaningful and comprehensive educational experiences. Although many organizational and educational settings still privilege the notion of face-to-face classroom instruction, there is nowadays a steady rush and enthusiasm for computer-oriented learning. The global popularity of the computer over the past decade has brought about the innovative uses of computers in educational and foreign language teaching and learning (Belz & kinginger, 2003); with the advance of the technology, more interactive uses of CALL and the increase in the integration of various evolved (Pusack & Lotto, 1990).
CALL is a relatively new academic field that includes highly interactive and communicative support for different language skills including extensive use of the internet. It is a new issue in both computer and linguistic science which offers good promises to teachers, material developers, linguists, and computer researchers. Hence, there are various peripheral applications for computers in the educational domain. In the EFL settings, CALL programs can improve the learning speed, individualized instruction, administration, and efficiency the notion of using computers in foreign language learning and teaching was brought about by the rapid advent of overwhelming computation (Chambers & Davies, 2001). Therefore, language instructors had to adapt their teaching methods to the new ways of FL instruction using computers. The computer focuses on the user’s progress, the possible mistakes, and problems and leads the learner to adapt its pace to the learner’s and learning results she/he has achieved.
As it is known, English has four main skills namely: Listening, Reading, Speaking and writing. The main goal of teaching these skills is to enable students to interact successfully with native and non-native users of English in a variety of social and academic settings.
Reading is considered as the most important skill. Reading is an essential skill for students which enable them to acquire knowledge and develop their academic areas. The essential aim of teaching reading is to train students to read efficiently and quickly in order to get information and meaning from the written material with full understanding and enjoyment.
Reading is one of the crucial language skills for EFL language learners, for academic success, and for professional development. It is widely known that learners learning style and pace of learning can vary significantly even if they belong to the same language learning groups. Even, during the classes dealing with reading comprehension, learners cannot develop their skills as they have to wait for their classmates to complete the assigned task to all learners. The application of computers help students work at their own pace through which teachers can assess the needs and problems of ability to select the type of reading comprehension test based on their preferences, CALL activities are also more interesting, challenging, and motivating which improve the learners’ participation and attention.
Reading is considered as an additional tool of communication to listening and speaking. People who have no chance to talk with native speakers of the target language can have an access through reading to their literature, journals, and then understand much about their civilization. In this sense, reading is the window through which other cultures can be seen and more general or specific knowledge can be gained. (Kailani & Muqattash, 2008)
It has been increasingly argued that computer technologies can support learning in a number of ways. Many features of the computer are considered to enhance reading comprehension: multimedia is one of them. Multimedia refers to computer-based systems that use different kinds of content, such as text, audio, video, graphics, animation, and interactivity. The text comprehension can be facilitated by multimedia aids such as pictures, animations and other visual or auditory cues. In this study, the researcher provides a CALL program by using multimedia aids. Pictures are used for new words in the readings and CD is played for reading the text and also video related to the text is shown.
The present study looked for new strategies and techniques to make reading classes more desirable and teacher teach more effectively by using CALL program in the classes. A well-designed computerized program was used in this study in order to develop students’ reading comprehension because technology in general and computers in particular have become the most used tool in all fields especially in education. Students have become familiar with the text and comprehend its idea when using computers.
According to Abo Oda (2010), using computers is one of the most efficient ways to make the lessons audio-visual, to supply a fluent and effective education, to keep the students away from memorization, to obtain speed and permanence in perception. Computers address more senses compared to other technological tools and make abstract and complicated concepts concrete digitally because of their extensive multimedia properties. And also Becker (2000) declares that computer technologies and the environments they support can help motivate the learner to learn, increase the learner’s control over the material being presented, and allow the learner to take an active role in the learning process.
This chapter presents purpose of the study, significance of the study, the statement of the problem, research questions, research hypotheses, definition of key terms, limitations and outline of the study.
0.2 Purpose of the Study
Success in reading comprehension is not an inborn capacity and it can be learnt. Thus, to learn how to read successfully, four variables conditioning the course of reading process have to be taken into consideration. The variables are: the reader, the text, the strategies, and the goal. As far as the reader is concerned, his/her reading skills are vital, as well as his/her interest in the topic. Such factors as sleepiness or hunger play a significant role as well. All these factors influence the success in reading. Also the type of the text has an impact on the reading process, as there is a certain degree of difference in difficulty between various types, e.g. between a novel and a scientific text. The most important factor, however, are reading strategies, as they affect reading in the most significant fashion. Unsuccessful language learners can either use too few reading strategies, or they can apply them in a chaotic way, which obviously impairs reading effectiveness. Also the reader’s purpose for reading is vital, as various purposes condition the use of particular strategies. If the reader only needs to gather general information, he/she will employ strategies appropriate for this goal, e.g. skimming. If, for example, he/she looks for more specific information, the best strategy to apply would be scanning.
As it transpires, the reading process can be influenced by many factors. All of those factors, however, are reader-dependent. Very important is the reader’s proficiency, and what results from it, his/her knowledge of vocabulary. As vocabulary is stored in the learner’s memory, also memory plays a very significant role in the whole process. Its additional task is to activate cognitive schemata. Appropriate reading strategies, however, are of paramount importance, as they condition the success in the overall comprehension of a text.
One of the factors influencing the readers’ comprehension is the use of the appropriate method or technique in developing the learners’ language proficiency. Because CALL has not been studied too much in the EFL context, this study tries to show how CALL programs can be used to develop the readers’ comprehension abilities. This study provides evidence and some causes that using computer in the class would help the students’ to comprehend the reading texts better.
0.3 Significance of the Study
Teaching reading with traditional method became boring with the rapid development of technology which motivates students to be attentive readers. The teachers should be aware of the new technologies especially computers and their effect on improving students’ skills and enhancing their reading competency. Computerized program is now a reality to all language learners and, educators. Web-based programs allow existing computer labs to become a good technological center for effective teaching. Educators desire to know the ways that computer can be used to support and nurture students’ learning and understanding. This study may help teachers to use computer in their classes to improve reading comprehension.
The present study is valuable in dealing with the questions regarding the effect of a CALL program on Iranian EFL learners. It can show the teachers and syllabus designers how CALL can develop the learners reading’ comprehension as a neglected area among the learners in Iran educational settings.
It is hoped this investigation will be useful and appropriate for following reason:
1. It gives language teachers and learners an opportunity to thinking about the new ways of teaching and learning English reading texts among Iranian EFL learners and persuades them to examine new methods and new technologies in the class.
2. It creates more desirable atmosphere in reading class because of using computer which motivate the students.
3. It can be used to improve the students’ learning speed and to increase the learning ability of EFL learners in the educational contexts.
0.4 Statement of the Problem
By the 1990’s, the mutual interests of language researchers and computer specialists paved the way to conduct researches and contributions to CALL (Marzban, 2011). Computer assisted language learning is a new enterprise in Iran where the majority of language teachers must know the implications of using computers for language learning.
The importance of reading is overlooked in many educational settings and teachers mostly sacrifice teaching reading to spend valuable class time on other areas of the language. Many of the Iranian EFL learners have still difficulties with reading comprehension as both teachers and students don’t pay enough attention to this skill.
Learners need to read text book, magazines, and articles in English to acquire knowledge and information for their career and academic studies. At higher education, the poor English reading ability of Iranian learners is commonly recognized across the country.
Several causes may be identified in regard to the Iranian EFL learners’ poor English reading problem. These may include a lack of reading resources, a lack of reading strategy knowledge, a lack of strong reading culture, and teacher’s use of unsuccessful teaching methods.
Though researchers mostly consider the lack of reading strategy knowledge for EFL learners’ poor reading ability, effective instruction to teach the learners in using reading strategy rarely occurs during large universities. Teachers assign the reading materials, make the learners read, and then assess their reading comprehension performance which in turn leads to students’ failure in reading comprehension. This is in line with the researches done by Ekwall & Shanker (1998), Durkin(1978,1979), Prossley & Wharton_McDonal(1997). A few studies in Iran (Esmaeilifard & Nabifar, 2011; Marzban, 2011) investigated the effectiveness of CALL on reading comprehension of EFL learners.
To address this problem, an effective reading strategy instruction must be carried out to promote Iranian EFL learners’ reading ability. Researchers have studied what reading strategies EFL and ESL learners employ in their reading (Chinwonno, 2001; Huahg, Chern, & Lin, 2009) and to what extent these strategies affect learner’s reading comprehension. (Chian, 2005; Nealy, 2003; Steinagel, 2005). In this regard, various CALL programs have shown the effectiveness of these programs in promoting active learning and interactive instruction ( Klassen & Milton,1999).
Hence, this study tries to investigate the impact of CALL on reading comprehension of Iranian EFL learners of the intermediate level.
0.5 Research Questions
In order to fulfill the purpose of this study, the following questions are raised by the researcher:
RQ1: Does computer assisted language learning (CALL) have any effect on the Iranian EFL learners reading comprehension at the intermediate level?
RQ2: Is there any significant difference between the mean scores of the group taught through CALL and the group taught by traditional methods?
0.6 Research Null Hypothesis
H0¹: Computer-assisted language learning has no effect on the Iranian EFL learners’ reading comprehension at the intermediate level.
H0²: There is no significant difference between the mean scores of the group taught through CALL and the group taught by traditional methods.
0.7 Definition of Key Terms
In this study there are a few key terms which help the understanding of the research possible:
CALL (computer-assisted language learning): Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is succinctly defined in a seminal work as the search for and study of applications of the computer in language teaching and learning. CALL embraces a wide range of information and communications technology applications and approaches to teaching and learning foreign languages, from the “traditional” drill-and-practice programs that characterized CALL in the 1960s and 1970s to more recent manifestations of CALL, e.g. as used in a virtual learning environment and Web-based distance learning.
Reading: cognitive process of decoding symbols to derive meaning from text (as in reading a book or reading music) .
EFL context: English as a foreign language (EFL) is the use or study of English by speakers with different native languages.
0.8 Limitations and de-limitations
In conducting the study, some limitations may appear and the fields for possible future research can take these limitations into consideration. First, the subjects are limited to intermediate EFL learners in a language institute. Second, this study was conducted over one semester period, and some reading texts were used. Future studies can be carried out in a longer period and can be used more texts, then they could come to a different conclusion .Third, as the student may get tired during the intact classes, they may leave the instruction during the treatment.
0.9 Outline of the Study
This study includes five chapters.
The first chapter presented the statement of the problem, significance of the study, Research questions, research hypotheses, definition of key terms and limitations.
Chapter two discusses the concept of reading, the importance of reading, reading purposes, types of reading, reading comprehension and reading comprehension skills and also discusses about Computer Assisted Language Learning(CALL), history of CALL, advantages and disadvantages of CALL, CALL and reading skills, using computers in a reading class and CALL methodology and also includes Studies related to the CALL program.
In Chapter three, the researcher presents the participants, study design, procedure, instrumentation and also talks about data collection and analysis.
In chapter four, the data obtained through the method and instrument discussed in chapter 3 are analyzed and general pattern and results are discussed through different tables.
Chapter five presents the discussion, conclusions, implication and limitations of the study. At the end of this chapter the suggestions for more the studies are made.
Chapter 1: Review of the Related Literature
1.1 Introduction
This chapter consists of two sections: Section one discusses the concept of reading, the importance of reading, reading purposes, types of reading, reading comprehension and reading comprehension skills and also discusses Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL), history of CALL, advantages of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL), disadvantages of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL), CALL and reading skills, using computers in a reading class and CALL methodology. Section two includes studies related to the CALL program.
1.2 Reading and Importance of Reading
The reading concept has been misunderstood due to some wrong ideas about the nature of reading. Reading is a cognitive process which includes transferring the written symbols by the reader through the eyes, so these symbols need understanding meaning and then integrating this meaning to personal experiences.
Therefore, there are some highly complex psychological processes concerned with reading. (Khater, 1981, p.43). Consequently, there are two concepts of reading. Firstly, the mechanic pattern which means the physiological response to what is written. Secondly, the cognitive process in which the reader can think, infer, and understand meaning. As a result, reading is a complex process which includes not only printed words but also understanding meaning of the written expressions. (Yunis, 1998, p.162)
Reading involves two major components: (1) word recognition or the decoding of written symbols; and (2) attachment of meaning to the written forms of language. The ability to read independently is not founded exclusively on one or the other of these two components; both are required. We cannot independently form the symbol-sound correspondences which make up recognizable words unless we are able to decode; and we cannot read unless the written message has meaning for us. (Wardand Skailand, 1983)
According to Zintz (1978, p.7) reading is the ability to get meaning in lines of print so that the reader is not concerned with the mechanical details but with grasping ideas from words that convey meaning. He also defines reading as a process of thinking evaluating, judging, imagining, reasoning, and problem-solving. Reading, as the experienced reader uses the skill, may be thought of as a four-step process: perceiving words in print, understanding their meaning in context, reacting to the idea presented by the writer, and integrating new learning into one’s accumulated experience. Reading, for the child just learning the necessary skills, must provide for the anticipation and acquisition of meaning in context from the very first lessons.
Hittleman (1988, p. 6) states that reading is a thinking, linguistic, and cultural/social process that is interrelated with and supportive of the other communication processes listening, speaking, and writing. In addition, reading includes both reconstructing an author’s message and constructing one’s own meaning using the print on a page. A reader’s reconstruction of the ideas and information intended by an author is somewhat like a listener’s reconstruction of ideas from a speaker’s combinations of sounds. According to Lafi (2006, p.163) reading is the ability for a reader to transfer written symbols to meaning and using them communicatively and effectively. And also, Millrood (2001, p.117) argues that reading is a visual and cognitive process to extract meaning from writing by understanding the written text processing information and relating it to existing experience. Similarly, Abu Shamla (2010, p.22) states that reading is “the cognitive process of understanding a written linguistic message and a mental representation of the meaning.” On the other hand, Moyle (1972 p.23) clarifies that reading is turning the collection of symbols seen upon a piece of paper into talk, or in the case of silent reading, into an image of speech sounds. According to Davies (1995, p.82) , reading is basically a matter of decoding a series of written symbols into their equivalents for understanding the text. He called this process the ‘bottom-up’ view of reading which is gradually developed as the reader goes on reading.
Paran (1996, p.24) states that reading is an activity including constant guesses that are later rejected or confirmed. This means that one does not read all the sentences in the same way, but one relies on a number of words – or ‘cues’ – to get an idea of what kind of sentence is likely to follow.
Clearly, most writers define reading as a complex process in which the reader can encode the symbols then interact with the text after understanding the meaning. Thus, reading is an interactive process in which the reader interacts with the text and employs his/her experience and knowledge to get meaning. Consequently, it can be concluded that reading is a basic, purposeful skill in which the teacher has to get students decode the symbols and understand the meaning.
Reading is the most important skill which humans should acquire, as it is the means of communication, enjoyment and pleasure and it is one of the cognitive and emotional factors for humans.
Budir and Sadiq (2002, p.90) clarify the importance of reading as follows:
It is a means of communication between people.
It is a crucial factor for students to acquire several experiences and knowledge.
It is a means for teaching good manners and values for students. In addition, Abu Shamla (2010, p.15) states that reading is the most essential skill needed to acquire knowledge. It develops critical thinking and increases students’ ability to concentrate. It also increases the pleasure and effectiveness. Moreover, it helps in all the other subjects and in the personal and professional lives. In the same context, Badr El-Deen (2009, p.33) concludes that reading is an essential skill for students who are learning English as a foreign language and the development of good reading abilities will greatly help them progress in other academic areas.
Reading is a very necessary skill in our lives. We read newspapers and magazines, labels on food, instructions, we read textbooks. People who cannot read well do not do well in school and miss out a lot of things in life. (Swihart, 2009, p.2 ). In the same concern, Mikulecky (1986 , p.1) clarifies that reading helps us learn to think in the new language and build a better vocabulary. In addition, it helps us be more comfortable with written English.
According to Ali (2010, p.32), Reading, the mother of all skills, is a basic tool of learning and one of the most important skills in everyday life. All children start school with the expectation they will learn to read, and one of the most important things a child is asked to do is to read. Also, it develops critical thinking and increases a student’s ability to concentrate. In addition, it increases the pleasure and effectiveness. Moreover, it helps in all the other subjects and in the personal and professional lives.
Reading is an important language skill and a highly complicated act that everyone must learn. Reading is not solely a single skill but a combination of many skills and processes in which the readers interact with printed words and texts for content and pleasure. Through reading, one can teach writing, speaking, vocabulary items, grammar, spelling and other language aspects. The basic aims of reading are to enable students to gain an understanding of the world and themselves, to develop appreciation and interests, and to find solutions to their personal and group problems. (Al Mansour & Al Shorman, 2010 , p.1)
Reading is essential for cognitive growth and language progress. It enables individuals to enrich their attitudes. It is also a key for recognizing others’ cultures. In addition, it creates a special human with a critical and creative cognition. Generally speaking, reading is a means of getting different types of knowledge as religious, scientific, literary and cultural.
1.3 Reading Purposes
Kailani and Muqattash (2008, p.82) state that there are several purposes for reading most important of which are as follows:
1) Reading for referential material so as to get factual information with which to operate in the environment.
2) Reading for research to get some information concerning a certain problem under study.
3) Reading for improving intellectual skills, or to gain more general or specific knowledge.
4) Reading for summarizing a text or for writing a report on a subject .
5) Reading for entertainment or self-development as when we read a novel, story, and a poem, in a newspaper, magazine, or journal.
Each purpose affects the process depending on reading. Several types of skills are included depending on the reading activity. In other words, one focuses on related data and ignores material irrelevant to his/her objectives, when reading for pleasure one is free to read what one likes and how to read it. Consequently, reading is carried out for a purpose other than reading the language itself.
1.4 Types of Reading
The types of reading as discussed in different books and researches are as follows:
1.4.1 Extensive reading
Extensive reading means to read at length, for pleasure and in slow and relaxed way, intensive reading is likely to be more focused, less relaxed and dedicated to achieve study objectives. (Haboush, 2010, p.17).
Extensive reading is usually done at home for entertainment, or for getting general information. It has a supplementary role in the process of learning a foreign language as it widens the general knowledge of the learner and reinforces previously learned items. The material usually has the form of short stories, novels, plays, poems, texts, magazines and journals. It includes survey reading, superficial reading and skimming. (Kailani &Muqattash, 2008, p.37)
Extensive reading is an approach to language teaching in which learners read a lot of easy material in the new language. They choose their own reading material and read it independently of the teacher. They read for general, overall meaning, and they read for information and enjoyment. (Bamford and Day, 2004, p.12)
1.4.2 Intensive reading
Intensive reading involves learners reading in detail with specific learning aims and tasks. It can be compared with extensive reading, which involves learners reading texts for enjoyment and developing general reading skills. The purpose of intensive reading is to teach new words.
Therefore, the reading material designed for intensive reading is usually a little higher than the students’ level. In the classroom, intensive reading activities include skimming a text for specific information to answer true or false statements or filling gaps in a summary, scanning a text to match headings to paragraphs, and scanning jumbled paragraphs and then reading them carefully to put them into the correct order.( Ali ,2010, p.15)
Kailani and Muqattash (2008, p.90) suggest that intensive reading is a classroom task carried on under the teacher’s guidance. It is mainly concerned with texts and includes concentrating on new words, structures, expressions, functions, pronunciation and on cultural insights. It is carefully guided so that thorough understanding of the content may be achieved. The reading material designed for intensive reading is usually a little higher than the students’ level. Similarly, Paran (2003, p.39) states hat intensive reading activities are needed for four main reasons: to help learners comprehend written texts, to become more aware of text organization to better comprehend, to learn how to use and monitor effective reading strategies, and to develop generally literacy skills necessary to generate productive expressions in L2.
1.5 Reading Comprehension
“Comprehension” is a noun derived from the verb “comprehends”, which means, “to understand” the content



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